الثلاثاء، أكتوبر 30، 2007

English Idioms

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regard verb [T usually + adverb or preposition]
1 to consider or have an opinion about something or someone:
Local people regard this idea of a motorway through their village with horror.
Her parents always regarded her as the cleverest of their children.

2 FORMAL to look carefully at something or someone:
The bird regarded me with suspicion as I walked up to its nest.

regard Show phonetics
noun [U] FORMAL
respect or consideration for someone or something:
The company holds her in high regard.
He has no regard for other people's feelings.

regarding Show phonetics
preposition FORMAL
The company is being questioned regarding its employment policy.

regardless adverb
despite; not being affected by something:
The plan for a new office tower went ahead regardless of local opposition.
She knew it was dangerous to visit him except at night, but she set out regardless (of the risk).
This job is open to all, regardless of previous experience.


A Bird In The Hand Is Worth Two In The Bush
"Dan has asked me to go to a party with him. What if my boyfriend finds out?" Reply: "Don't go. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush."

A Blessing In Disguise
"My car broke down again, but maybe it was a blessing in disguise; I've been wasting too much time driving around anyway."

A Chip On Your Shoulder
"What's bothering that guy?" Answer: "Nothing; he's just got a chip on the shoulder."

A Dime A Dozen
"I don't need friends like him; they are a dime a dozen."

A Drop In The Bucket
"I'd like to do something to change the world but whatever I do seems like a drop in the bucket."

A Fool And His Money Are Easily Parted
Example: "Her husband can't seem to hold onto any amount of money; he either spends it or loses it. A fool and his money are easily parted."

A Penny Saved Is A Penny Earned
"I'm going to give you $20 but I want you to put it in the bank; a penny saved is a penny earned!"

A Piece Of Cake
"Do you think you will win your tennis match today?" Answer: "It will be a piece of cake."

A Shot In The Dark
"That was such a difficult question! How did you get it right?" Reply: "I just took a shot in the dark."

A Slap On The Wrist
"He should be in jail for what he did, but he got off with just a slap on the wrist."

A Slip Of The Tongue
"Be careful talking to the police tomorrow; one slip of the tongue could get us into big trouble."

A Taste Of Your Own Medicine
"It looks like she got a taste of her own medicine."

A Toss-Up
"Do you think they'll make it one time?" Answer: "I really don't know. It's a toss-up."

A Wolf In Sheep's Clothing
"Don't trust the salespeople at that store; they are all wolves in sheep's clothing!"

About Face
"Do an about face, get back in that bathroom, and brush your teeth!"

Absence Makes The Heart Grow Fonder
"The time we spend apart has been good for us; absence makes the heart grow fonder."

Actions Speak Louder Than Words
"Don't tell me how to do this; show me! Actions speak louder than words."

Add Fuel To The Fire
"I would like to do something to help, but I don't want to add fuel to the fire."

Against The Clock
"We worked against the clock all day to get this report done by 5PM."

Against The Grain
"I jog at this track everyday and there is always that one guy who has to go against the grain and run in the opposite direction."

All Bark And No Bite
"The new manager threatened to fire me but I know he won't do it; he is all bark and no bite."

All Greek
"Did you understand what he just said?" Reply: "Nope. It was all Greek to me."

All In The Same Boat
"We can't fight against each other; we need to work together. We're all in the same boat!"

All That Glitters Is Not Gold
"Be careful when shopping for your new car; all that glitters is not gold!"

All Thumbs
"Hey! You are pouring my coffee on the table!" Reply: "Oh, I'm so sorry! I have been all thumbs today."

An Arm And A Leg
"Be careful with that watch; it cost me an arm and a leg."

An Axe To Grind
"I have an axe to grind with you." Answer: "Oh no; what did I do wrong?"

Arm In Arm
"What a nice afternoon. We walked arm in arm along the beach for hours."

Around The Block
"You kids are too young to fall in love: Wait until you have been around the block a time or two."

As Blind As A Bat
"Without his glasses, my father is as blind as a bat."

As High As A Kite
"The ball got stuck up there on the roof. It's as high as a kite."

As Light As A Feather
"Wow, you lift that box so easily!" Reply: "Oh, come on. It is as light as a feather."

At The Drop Of A Hat
"Would you travel around the world if you had the money?" Answer: "At the drop of a hat."

At Wit's End
"We have been at wit's end trying to figure out how we are going to pay our taxes."

Back To The Drawing Board
"It looks like my plan to kill the weeds in the garden has failed. Back to the drawing board."

Barking Up The Wrong Tree
"I have been trying to solve this math problem for 30 minutes but I think I've been barking up the wrong tree."

Beat A Dead Horse
"There's no use in beating a dead horse."

Beating Around The Bush
"If you want to ask me, just ask; don't beat around the bush."

Bend Over Backwards
"We bent over backwards to help him, and he never even thanked us!"

Better Late Than Never
"Sorry I was late for the meeting today; I got stuck in traffic." Answer: "That's okay; better late than never."

Between A Rock And A Hard Place
"I'd like to help you but I am stuck between a rock and a hard place."

Birds Of A Feather Flock Together
"Look; the volleyball players are eating at the same table together, as always." Answer: "Birds of a feather flock together."

Bite Off More Than You Can Chew
"I thought I could finish this report within one month, but it looks like I have bitten off more than I can chew."

Bite Your Tongue
"Whenever that professor says something I don't like, I have to bite my tongue."

Blood Is Thicker Than Water
"When my best friend and my brother got in a fight I had to help my brother; blood is thicker than water."

Break Down
"Did your car break down again?"

Break In
"They broke in to my apartment when I was gone, and they took everything!"

Break The Tie
"Whoever wins in Florida will have enough votes to break the tie."

Burn Your Bridges
"I wish you hadn't been rude to that man just now; he is very important in this town and you shouldn't go around burning bridges."

Burning The Candle At Both Ends
"Ever since this new project started I have been burning the candle at both ends. I can't take much more of it."

Burning The Midnight Oil
"Our son has been working hard preparing for his final exams!" Answer: "Yes, he's been up each night burning the midnight oil."

Call It Off
"Tonight's game was called off because of the rain."

Can't Cut The Mustard
"Bob dropped out of medical school; he couldn't cut the mustard."

Cold Turkey
"I want to quit drinking right now. As of this moment, I am going cold turkey."

Come Hell Or High Water
"Will you be at the family reunion next year?" Answer: "Yes- we'll be there, come hell or high water!"

Cross Your Fingers
"Let's cross our fingers and hope for the best!"

Cry Over Spilt Milk
"Let's not go crying over spilt milk."

Cry Wolf
"That kid on the other team just fell down; it looks like he might be hurt!" Answer: "He's not hurt; he's just crying wolf."

Curiosity Killed The Cat
"Hey, I wonder what's down that street; it looks awfully dark and creepy." Answer: "Let's not try to find out. Curiosity killed the cat."

Dead Heat
"It looks like were going to have to find another way to decide a winner. That one was a dead heat."

"I have been in this business for twenty years. It's dog-eat-dog; the competition is always trying to steal your customers."

Don't Count Your Chickens Until They're Hatched
"Next Friday I will be able to pay you back that money I owe you." Answer: "I won't be counting my chickens..."

Don't Look A Gift Horse In The Mouth
"Don't look a gift horse in the mouth! When you buy your own beers you can decide what brand you want."

Don't Put All Your Eggs In One Basket
"The best way to gamble is to only bet small amounts of money and never put all your eggs in one basket."

Down To The Wire
"It looks like this race is going to come right down to the wire!"

Drastic Times Call For Drastic Measures
"Sales have been slow and we had to let go three of our employees; drastic times call for drastic measures."

Dry Spell
"Sam is a great salesman, though lately he's been having a bit of a dry spell."

Every Cloud Has A Silver Lining
"I found a new job after all and I like this one much better than the last!" Answer: "You see, every cloud has a silver lining."

Everything But The Kitchen Sink
"Whenever we go camping my wife wants to bring everything but the kitchen sink!"

Fair And Fair Alike
"Michael stayed home to take care of your sister last night, so tonight it is your turn. Fair and fair alike."

Finding Your Feet
"Don't worry about it. We will help you while you are finding your feet."

Fixed In Your Ways
"Sometimes it is hard to accept that your parents are fixed in their ways."

Flash In The Pan
"What a great first year he had, but after that... nothing!" Answer: "Just another flash in the pan."

From Rags To Riches
"My uncle is a real rags to riches story."

Get Over It
"I was very sick yesterday, but I got over it quickly."

Get Up On The Wrong Side Of The Bed
"Don't start yelling at me just because you got up on the wrong side of the bed."

Give Him The Slip
"My brother will be at the movie tonight. Afterwards, let's give him the slip and go to a party."

Go For Broke
"The way to be successful is to decide exactly what you want, then go for broke."

Great Minds Think Alike
"I have decided that this summer I am going to learn how to scuba dive." Answer: "Me too! I have already paid for the course. Great minds think alike!"

Haste Makes Waste
"You should always take your time when doing your taxes and check your numbers very carefully; haste makes waste."

Have No Idea
"I can't find my keys. I have no idea where I put them."

He Lost His Head
"Okay- I'll tell you what happened. But don't lose your head."

Head Over Heels
"I have been head over heels about my girlfriend since the day I met her."

Icing On The Cake
"I've been accepted by the university, and they've offered me a position on the basketball team!" Answer: "That's wonderful! Icing on the cake."

Idle Hands Are The Devil's Tools
"It makes me nervous to see those kids outside just standing around; idle hands are the devils tools!"

If It's Not One Thing, It's Another
"First the car broke down, and now I can't find my keys! If it's not one thing, it's another!"

In And Out
"I know this city in and out."

In Over Your Head
"Go ahead and lead the meeting today; I'll help you out if you get in over your head."

In The Dark
"Did you know that today was her birthday?" Answer: "No, I was in the dark."

In The Doghouse
"You kids will be in the doghouse with your mother after that mess you made in her garden!"

In The Heat Of The Moment
"Sorry about what I said; I got caught up in the heat of the moment."

It Takes Two To Tango
"Her husband is awful; they fight all the time." Answer: "It takes two to tango."

It's A Small World
"Hey, it's funny seeing you here." Reply: "It's a small world."

Its Anyone's Call
"Who do you think will win this election?" Answer: "Its anyone's call."

Keep An Eye On Him
"I have to run to the bathroom. Can you keep an eye on my suitcase while I am gone?"

Labor Of Love
"Taking care of this dog is a labor of love."

Lend Me Your Ear
"Friends, Romans, countrymen; lend me your ear."

Let Bygones Be Bygones
"You and I have had our disagreements; let's let bygones be bygones."

Let Sleeping Dogs Lie
"I wanted to ask her what she thought of her ex-husband, but I figured it was better to let sleeping dogs lie."

Let The Cat Out Of The Bag
"Bob didn't tell anyone that he was sick, but his wife let the cat out of the bag."

Mad As A Hatter
"Everybody in my family knew that our uncle was as mad as a hatter."

Method To My Madness
"Give me a moment to explain; there is method to my madness."

Neck And Neck
"They're coming around the final corner. They're neck and neck!"

Neither A Borrower, Nor A Lender Be
"Could you lend me twenty dollars?" Answer: "Sorry, neither a borrower nor a lender be."

Never Bite The Hand That Feeds You
"We have been your best customers for years. How could you suddenly treat us so rudely? You should never bite the hand that feeds you."

Nose Out Of Joint
"We were only joking; don't get your nose out of joint."

Not A Chance
"Do you think you will be able to finish your report by five o'clock today?" Answer: "Not a chance. I'll be busy in meetings all day."

Off Limits
"Guns are off limits within New York City."

Off On The Wrong Foot
"Let's try to start on time tomorrow and get off on the right foot."

Off The Hook
"You're lucky; it turns out that Dad never heard you come in late last night." Answer: "Great, that means I'm off the hook!"

On Pins And Needles
"Jean was on pins and needles the whole time her father was in the hospital."

On The Fence
"Has he decided whether he will take the job yet?" Answer: "No, he's still on the fence."

On The Same Page
"Before we make any decisions today, I'd like to make sure that everyone is on the same page."

On Top Of The World
"What a great time we had that night; we were on top of the world!"

On Your Last Leg
"I would be glad to sell you my car, but I must tell you that it is on its last leg."

On Your Mind
"You have been on my mind all day."

One For The Road
"Bartender- I'll have one more whiskey for the road."

Out And About
"Where have you been all day?" Answer: "Oh, out and about."

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind
"I meant to read that book, but as soon as I put it down, I forgot about it." Answer: "Out of sight, out of mind."

Out Of The Blue
"Why did she do that?" Answer: "I have no idea. It was completely out of the blue."

Out Of The Frying Pan And Into The Fire
"I didn't like that job because I was working too hard. Yet in this new job I work even harder!" Answer: "Out of the frying pan and into the fire."

Out Of The Woods
"Joe was sick two weeks ago and we were very worried, but now it looks like he is out of the woods."

Out Of Your Element
"He is a great tennis player on the hard courts, but he is out of his element on grass."

Out On A Limb
"I want this project to succeed just as much as you do, but I am not willing to go out on a limb."

Out On The Town
"Do you want to join us tonight? We're going out on the town."

Over My Dead Body
"All of my friends are going out to the lake tonight and I'm going too!" Answer: "Over my dead body you are!"

Par For The Course
"I get sick every time I travel." Answer: "That's just par for the course."

Penny-Wise, Pound-Foolish
"We've worked so hard to save money that if we took a vacation now it would be penny-wise, pound-foolish."

People Who Live In Glass Houses Should Not Throw Stones
"Look at what time it is... you are late again!" Answer: "Hey, how often are you not on time? People who live in glass houses should not throw stones."

Practice Makes Perfect
"You see how quickly you are getting better at the piano! Practice makes perfect!"

Practice What You Preach
"Good managers always lead by example and practice what they preach."

Preaching To The Choir
"You don't need to tell me this project is important; you're preaching to the choir."

Protest Too Much
"Do you think he is telling the truth?" Answer: "I think he protests too much."

Pulling Your Leg
"I want to ask you a question and I would like an honest answer; no pulling my leg."

Put Your Best Foot Forward
"I want you to get out on that field and put your best foot forward!"

Put Your Foot In Your Mouth
"Let's all be very careful what we say at the meeting tomorrow. I don't want anyone putting their foot in their mouth."

Raise Cain
"Have you two boys been out raising cain again?"

Rock The Boat
"Everybody wants to go except for you. Why do you have to rock the boat?"

Roll Out The Red Carpet
"We are all so excited about your coming home that we're going to roll out the red carpet."

Rome Was Not Built In One Day
"It is taking me a long time to write this computer program." Answer: "Rome was not built in one day."

Round About
"Well, I know how to get there in a round about way, but maybe we should check the map."

Rub Salt In An Old Wound
"Oh please, let's not rub salt in old wounds!"

Second Nature
"It has always been second nature for me to draw with both hands."

Shake A Leg
"They are waiting outside in the car; let's shake a leg!"

Sick As A Dog
"I heard you were uncomfortable yesterday." Answer: "Uncomfortable? I was as sick as a dog!"

Sink Or Swim
"When we interview new teachers, we just put them in with the students and see how they do. It's sink or swim."

Six Of One, A Half-Dozen Of The Other
Example: "I say she's a stewardess. She says she's a flight attendant. It's six of one, a half-dozen of the other."

Skeletons In The Closet
"I had only known her for one week. How could I know what skeletons she had in her closet?"

Split Down The Middle
"The election is split down the middle with no clear winner at the moment."

Start From Scratch
"How are you going to build your business?" Answer: "Just like everyone else does: starting from scratch."

The Apple Of Your Eye
"Even when they were young, she was always the apple of his eye."

The Ball Is In Your Court
"My uncle helped me to get an interview at his company, now the ball is in my court."

The Best Of Both Worlds
"My wife and I bought one house in Paris and one in New York; it gives us the best of both worlds."

The Bigger They Are The Harder They Fall
"Are you worried that he might be too strong?" Answer: "No I'm not. He is big, but the bigger they are, the harder they fall."

The Devil Is In The Details
"I can sketch a basic outline of the plan for you and it may look very simple, but the devil is in the details."

The Early Bird Catches The Worm
"I always arrive at work 30 minutes early; the early bird catches the worm!"

The Ends Justify The Means
"I agree with your goal, but the ends do not justify the means."

The Jury Is Out
"Its hard to say if what we did was the right thing. The jury is still out on it."

The Pot Calling The Kettle Black
"Here comes the guy who is always late for work." Answer: "Aren't you the pot calling the kettle black?"

The Pros And Cons
"I've considered the pros and cons and I've decided: it is going to be expensive, but I still want to go to college."

The Sky Is The Limit
"After I graduate from business school, the sky's the limit!"

The Straw That Broke The Camel's Back
"You've been rude to me all day, and I've had it. That's the last straw!"

The Writing On The Wall
"Can't you see the writing on the wall?"

Third Wheel
"You two go on ahead without me. I don't want to be the third wheel."

Tie The Knot
"Did you hear about Dan and Jenny? They finally decided to tie the knot!"

To Err Is Human, To Forgive Divine
"I will never forgive my mother for what she has done!" Answer: "Don't be angry at her. To err is human, to forgive divine."

Tooth And Nail
"That was a tough match; they fought us tooth and nail!"

Truer Words Were Never Spoken
"The earlier I get up, the better the day I have." Answer:" Truer words were never spoken."

Turn Over A New Leaf
"I'm turning over a new leaf; I've decided to quit smoking."

Two Wrongs Don't Make A Right
"That boy pushed me yesterday and I am going to get him back today!" Answer: "No you are not! Two wrongs do not make a right."

Two's Company; Three's a Crowd
"Why did you have to bring your sister? Two's company; three's a crowd!"

Under The Gun
"Everyone at the office has been working under the gun since the new manager arrived."

Under The Weather
"What's wrong?" Answer: "I'm a bit under the weather."

Up Against
"We have been up against stronger opponents in the past."

Up For Grabs
"Quick- that table is up for grabs; let's get it before someone else does."

Variety Is The Spice Of Life
Example: "We were originally planning to go to Mexico on our vacation this year - like we did last year - but we decided to go to Egypt instead. Variety is the spice of life!"

Water Under The Bridge
"Aren't you still angry about what he said?" Answer: "No, that was a long time ago. It's all water under the bridge."

Wear Your Heart On Your Sleeve
"My brother always lets you know how he feels; he wears his heart on his sleeve."

What They Don't Know Won't Hurt Them
"Don't tell your father what happened; what he doesn't know won't hurt him."

When In Rome, Do As The Romans Do
"Are you sure we should eat this with our hands?" Answer: "Why not? All of these people are eating it that way. When in Rome, do as the Romans do!"

When It Rains, It Pours
"Sometimes we have no customers for two or three hours then suddenly we get 20 people all at once; when it rains, it pours!"

When Pigs Fly
"Would you ever take her on a date?" Answer: "Sure- when pigs fly!"

Wine And Dine
"That man is really is really crazy about my sister. He has been wining and dining her all month."

With Your Back Up Against The Wall
"I'm sorry I can't help you; I've got my back up against the wall."

Without A Doubt
"Are you going to watch the game tomorrow?" Answer: "Without a doubt!"

Word Of Mouth
"Where did you hear about that?" Answer: "Just word of mouth."

You Can't Judge A Book By Its Cover
"He dresses in plain clothing and drives an ordinary car. Who would know he is the richest man in town? You can't judge a book by its cover!"

Your Guess Is As Good As Mine
"Excuse me, what time does the bus arrive?" Answer: "Your guess is as good as mine; I almost never take the bus."

advice Show phonetics
noun [U]
an opinion which someone offers you about what you should do or how you should act in a particular situation:
Steven gave me some good advice.
I think I'll take your advice (= do what you suggest) and get the green dress.
Can I give you a piece of advice?
I need some advice on which computer to buy.
[+ to infinitive] My advice is to go by train.
We went to Paris on Sarah's advice.
NOTE: Do not confuse with the verb, advise.

Common Learner Error panel

advise Show phonetics
1 [I or T] to give someone advice:
[+ to infinitive] I think I'd advise him to leave the company.
His doctor advised him against smoking.
I'd strongly advise against making a sudden decision.
[+ that] They're advising that children be kept out of the sun altogether.
[+ ing form of verb] I'd advise waiting until tomorrow.
[+ question word] She advised us when to come.
She advises the President (= gives information and suggests types of action) on African policy.
You would be well-advised to (= It would be wise for you to) have the appropriate vaccinations before you go abroad.
NOTE: Do not confuse with the noun, advice.

2 [T] FORMAL to give someone official information about something:
They were advised of their rights.
[+ that] Our solicitors have advised that the costs could be enormous.

advisable Show phonetics
adjective [after verb]
If something is advisable, it will avoid problems if you do it:
[+ to infinitive] It's advisable to book seats at least a week in advance.
A certain amount of caution is advisable at this point.

advisability Show phonetics
noun [U]
They discussed the advisability of building so near to the airport.

adviser Show phonetics
noun [C] (ALSO advisor)
someone whose job is to give advice about a subject:
She is the party's main economic adviser.
a financial advisor

advisory Show phonetics
She is employed by the president in an advisory capacity (= giving advice).

advisory Show phonetics
noun [C usually plural] US
an official announcement that contains advice, information or a warning:
weather/travel advisories
Television companies sometimes broadcast advisories before violent movies.

regard Show phonetics
verb [T usually + adverb or preposition]
1 to consider or have an opinion about something or someone:
Local people regard this idea of a motorway through their village with horror.
Her parents always regarded her as the cleverest of their children.

2 FORMAL to look carefully at something or someone:
The bird regarded me with suspicion as I walked up to its nest.

regard Show phonetics
noun [U] FORMAL
respect or consideration for someone or something:
The company holds her in high regard.
He has no regard for other people's feelings.

regarding Show phonetics
preposition FORMAL
The company is being questioned regarding its employment policy.

regardless Show phonetics
despite; not being affected by something:
The plan for a new office tower went ahead regardless of local opposition.
She knew it was dangerous to visit him except at night, but she set out regardless (of the risk).
This job is open to all, regardless of previous experience.

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

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comply Show phonetics
verb [I] FORMAL
to act according to an order, set of rules or request:
He's been ordered to have the dog destroyed because it's dangerous, but he refuses to comply.
There are serious penalties for failure to comply with the regulations.

compliance Show phonetics
noun [U]
1 FORMAL when people obey an order, rule or request:
It is the job of the inspectors to enforce compliance with the regulations.
The company said that it had always acted in compliance with environmental laws.

2 MAINLY DISAPPROVING the tendency to be too willing to do what other people want you to do:
It's his compliance that amazes me.

compliant Show phonetics
adjective FORMAL
willing to do what other people want you to do:
a compliant child

effect (RESULT) Show phonetics
noun [C or U]
1 the result of a particular influence:
The radiation leak has had a disastrous effect on/upon the environment.
I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn't have any effect.
I think I'm suffering from the effects of too little sleep.
She has a lot of confidence which she uses to good effect (= to her advantage) in interviews.
See also after effects.

2 take effect to produce or achieve the results you want:
They had to wait ten minutes for the anaesthetic to take effect before they stitched up the cut.

3 MAINLY DISAPPROVING for effect If you say or do something for effect, you intentionally do it to shock people or attract their attention:
I get the impression that she uses bad language in meetings for effect.

4 in effect in fact, or in practice:
So in effect the government have lowered taxes for the rich and raised them for the poor.
See also effect (USE).
Common Learner Error panel

effective Show phonetics
1 successful or achieving the results that you want:
It's an extremely effective cure for a headache.
The lighting for the production made a very effective use of shadow.
She's a very effective teacher.
NOTE: The opposite is ineffective.

2 [before noun] in fact, although not officially:
Although she's not officially our boss, she's in effective control of the office.
See also effective at effect (USE).

effectively Show phonetics
1 in a way that is successful and achieves what you want:
The tablets work more effectively if you take a hot drink after them.

2 used when you describe what the real result of a situation is:
His wife left him when the children were small, so he effectively brought up the family himself.
Effectively, we have to start again from scratch.

effectiveness Show phonetics
noun [U]
There are doubts about the effectiveness of the new drug (= how successful it is) in treating the disease.

effectual Show phonetics
adjective FORMAL
effective and successful:
They wish to promote a real and effectual understanding between the two countries.

effectually Show phonetics
adverb FORMAL

contribute Show phonetics
verb [I or T]
1 to give something, especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people:
Aren't you going to contribute towards Jack's leaving present?
Come to the meeting if you feel you have something to contribute.
Her family have contributed £50, 000 to the fund.

2 to write articles for a newspaper, magazine or book:
She contributes to several magazines.

contributor Show phonetics
noun [C]
1 a person who gives something, especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people:
At the back of the programme, there is a list of contributors to the theatre appeal.

2 someone who writes articles for a newspaper, magazine or book

contribution Show phonetics
noun [C or U]
something that you do or give to help produce or achieve something together with other people, or to help make something successful:
All contributions (= presents of money), no matter how small, will be much appreciated.
All contributions (= articles to be printed) for the school magazine must be received by August 1st.
This invention made a major contribution to road safety.
She didn't make much of a contribution (= She did not say much) at today's meeting, did she?

contributory Show phonetics
1 describes something that you contribute to:
The company offers a contributory UK pension scheme/US pension plan (= one to which both the employee and employer contribute).
NOTE: The opposite is non-contributory.

2 helping to cause something:
Too little exercise is a contributory factor in heart diseases

despite Show phonetics
without taking any notice of or being influenced by; not prevented by:
I still enjoyed the week despite the weather.
Despite repeated assurances that the product is safe, many people have stopped buying it.
[+ ing form of verb] He managed to eat a big lunch despite having eaten an enormous breakfast.

despite Show phonetics
despite yourself If you do something despite yourself, you do it although you do not want to or although you know you should not:
He laughed despite himself.
She took the money from her mother's purse, despite herself.

mitigate Show phonetics
verb [T] FORMAL
to make something less harmful, unpleasant or bad:
It is unclear how to mitigate the effects of tourism on the island.

mitigating Show phonetics
1 FORMAL making something less harmful, unpleasant or bad:
Are there any mitigating circumstances/factors which might help explain her appalling behaviour?
Compare unmitigated.

2 LEGAL causing you to judge a crime to be less serious or to make the punishment less severe:
The jury must take into account any mitigating circumstances presented by the defense, such as previous good character.

mitigation Show phonetics
noun [U] FORMAL
'I was very young at the time, ' he said in mitigation.

retain Show phonetics
verb [T]
1 SLIGHTLY FORMAL to keep or continue to have something:
She has lost her battle to retain control of the company.
He managed to retain his dignity throughout the performance.
She succeeded in retaining her lead in the second half of the race.
I have a good memory and am able to retain (= remember) facts easily.

2 SLIGHTLY FORMAL If a substance retains something, such as heat or water, it continues to hold or contain it:
The sea retains the sun's warmth longer than the land.

3 LEGAL to obtain the services of a lawyer by paying them in advance

retainer Show phonetics
noun [C]
1 SPECIALIZED an amount of money which you pay to someone in advance so that they will work for you when you need them to

2 OLD USE a servant who has usually been with the same family for a long time:
a faithful old retainer

retention Show phonetics
the continued use, existence or possession of something or someone:
Two influential senators have argued for the retention of the unpopular tax.
The retention of old technology has slowed the company's growth.
water/heat retention

retentive Show phonetics
If you have a retentive memory or brain, you can remember things easily.
See also anally retentive.

amend Show phonetics
verb [T]
to change the words of a text, typically a law or a legal document:
MPs were urged to amend the law to prevent another oil tanker disaster.
In line 20, 'men' should be amended (= changed) to 'people'.
Until the constitution is amended, the power to appoint ministers will remain with the president.

amendment Show phonetics
1 [C or U] a change made to the words of a text:
He insisted that the book did not need amendment.
I've made a few last-minute amendments to the article.
Presidential power was reduced by a constitutional amendment in 1991.

2 [C] a change to a law that is not yet in operation and is still being discussed:
An amendment to the bill was agreed without a vote.

enhance Show phonetics
verb [T]
to improve the quality, amount or strength of something:
These scandals will not enhance the organization's reputation/image.

enhancement Show phonetics
noun [C or U]

enhancer Show phonetics
noun [C]
something which is used to improve the quality of something. Enhancer is usually used as a combining form:
Music can be a mood enhancer.
I don't like to use artificial flavour enhancers in my cooking.

-enhancing Show phonetics
Several athletes tested positive for illegal performance-enhancing drugs.

whatever (NOT IMPORTANT WHAT) Show phonetics
pronoun, determiner
it is not important what is; it makes no difference what (is):
We'll go whatever the weather.
Whatever happens, you know that I'll stand by you.
Whatever else may be said of him, Mr Meese is not scared of a fight.
Whatever the outcome of the war, there will be no winners.
Whatever the reason, more Britons are emigrating to Australia today than at any time since the 1950s.

whatever (ANYTHING) Show phonetics
pronoun, determiner
anything or everything:
I eat whatever I want and I still don't seem to put on weight.
"What shall we do tonight then?" "It's up to you - whatever you want."
Whatever I say I always seem to get it wrong.
Don't, whatever you do, tell Patrick or the world will know! (= You certainly should not tell Patrick!)
Do whatever you want - it won't affect me.
"So I'll bring red wine then." "Sure, whatever (= bring that or anything else)."
Apparently he 'discovered himself' in India, whatever that means (= although I do not know what that means).

whatever (SURPRISE) Show phonetics
used instead of the word what to add emphasis to a phrase, usually expressing surprise:
Whatever is he doing with that rod?
Whatever's that yellow thing on your plate?
Whatever did you say that for?
Whatever does she see in him - he's revolting!
Whatever made him buy that jacket?

oblige (FORCE) Hide phonetics
verb [T + object + to infinitive] (MAINLY US OR FORMAL obligate)
to force someone to do something, or to make it necessary for someone to do something:
The law obliges companies to pay decent wages to their employees.
Sellers are not legally obliged to accept the highest offer.

obligation Hide phonetics
1 [C or U] when you are obliged to do something:
[+ to infinitive] If you have not signed a contract, you are under no obligation to (= it is not necessary to) pay them any money.
You have a legal obligation to (= The law says you must) ensure your child receives a proper education.

2 [C] something that you must do:
I haven't got time to do his work for him - I've got too many obligations as it is.

obligatory Hide phonetics
1 describes something you must do because of a rule or law, etc:
The medical examination before you start work is obligatory.
[+ to infinitive] The statute made it obligatory for all fit males between 12 and 60 to work.

2 expected because it usually happens:
Some secret service agents turned up, all wearing the obligatory raincoat and hat.

obliged Hide phonetics
adjective [after verb; + to infinitive] (MAINLY US OR FORMAL obligated)
Doctors are legally obliged to take certain precautions.
She feels obliged to be nice to Jack because he's her boss.

emphasize Hide phonetics
verb [T]
1 (UK USUALLY -ise) to show or state that something is particularly important or worth giving attention to:
[+ question word] I'd just like to emphasize how important it is for people to learn foreign languages.
[+ that] He emphasized that all the people taking part in the research were volunteers.
You can use italics or capitals to emphasize a word in a piece of writing.

2 to make something more obvious:
Tight jeans will only emphasize any extra weight that you are carrying.

emphasis Hide phonetics
noun [C or U] plural emphases
1 the particular importance or attention that you give to something:
I think we should put as much emphasis on preventing disease as we do on curing it.
Schools here put/place/lay great emphasis on written work and grammar.

2 the extra force that you give to a word or part of a word when you are saying it:
The emphasis is on the final syllable.
Where do you put the emphasis in the word 'controversy'?

emphatic Hide phonetics
done or said in a strong way and without any doubt:
Poland reached the final of the championship yesterday with an emphatic 5-0 victory over Italy.
The minister has issued an emphatic rejection of the accusation.

emphatically Hide phonetics
Johnson has emphatically denied the allegations against him.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary
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liaise Hide phonetics
verb [I]
to speak to people in other organizations in order to exchange information with them:
Our head office will liaise with the suppliers to ensure delivery.

liaison Hide phonetics
1 [S or U] communication between people or groups who work with each other:
He blamed the lack of liaison between the various government departments.
The police have appointed a liaison officer to work with the local community.

2 [C] MAINLY US someone who helps groups to work effectively with each other:
She served as a liaison between the different groups.

3 [C] FORMAL a sexual relationship, especially between two people not married to each other:
He's had a number of liaisons, even with people in the same office.aware Hide phonetics
adjective [after verb]
1 knowing that something exists, or having knowledge or experience of a particular thing:
[+ that] I wasn't even aware that he was ill.
Were you aware of the risks at the time?
She was well (= very) aware that he was married.
"Has Claude paid the phone bill?" "Not as far as I'm aware." (= I don't think so)
I suddenly became aware of (= started to notice) him looking at me.

2 having special interest in or experience of something and so being well informed of what is happening in that subject at the present time:
to be ecologically/politically aware
sexually aware

awareness Hide phonetics
noun [U]
Public awareness of the problem will make politicians take it seriously.
Environmental awareness has increased dramatically over the past decade.intend verb [T]
to have as a plan or purpose:
[+ to infinitive] We intend to go to Australia next year.
Somehow I offended him, which wasn't what I'd intended.
[+ object + to infinitive] I don't think she intended me to hear the remark.
The course is intended for intermediate-level students.
It was intended as a compliment, honestly!

intent Hide phonetics
noun [U] FORMAL
when you want and plan to do something:
I spent half the morning on the phone, which wasn't really my intent.
[+ to infinitive] It was not his intent to hurt anyone.
LEGAL She was charged with possessing weapons with intent to endanger life.

intention Hide phonetics
noun [C or U]
something that you want and plan to do:
[+ to infinitive] It wasn't my intention to exclude her from the list - I just forgot her.
I've no intention of changing my plans just to fit in with his.
He's full of good intentions, but he never does anything about them!

intentional Hide phonetics
planned or intended:
Did you leave his name out by accident or was it intentional?

intentionally adverb
I didn't ignore her intentionally - I just didn't recognize her.

-intentioned Hide phonetics
I'm sure he's well-intentioned - he wouldn't mean any harm.

whatever (DISRESPECT) Show phonetics
something that is said to show disrespect to someone who is asking you to agree with them or agree to do something:
"Bryce, could you do what I ask you to once in a while?" "Whatever."

He/She deserves whatever/everything he/she gets.
said if you think someone should have to suffer because of their bad behaviour:
After all the harm she's done, she deserves whatever she gets.
what/whatever sb says goes
What (also whatever) someone says goes means you have to do what they say:
It was Helen's idea and whatever Helen says goes.

notwithstanding Show phonetics
preposition, adverb FORMAL
despite the fact or thing mentioned:
Notwithstanding some members' objections, I think we must go ahead with the plan.
Injuries notwithstanding, he won the semi-final match

overwhelm Hide phonetics
1 [T] to defeat someone or something by using a lot of force:
Government troops have overwhelmed the rebels and seized control of the capital.

2 [T usually passive] to cause someone to feel sudden strong emotion:
They were overwhelmed with/by grief when their baby died.
I was quite overwhelmed by all the flowers and letters of support I received.

3 [T] LITERARY If water overwhelms a place, it covers it suddenly and completely.

overwhelming Hide phonetics
1 difficult to fight against:
She felt an overwhelming urge/desire/need to tell someone about what had happened.

2 very great or very large:
She said how much she appreciated the overwhelming generosity of the public in responding to the appeal.
An overwhelming majority have voted in favour of the proposal.

overwhelmingly Hide phonetics
The team were overwhelmingly (= strongly or completely) defeated in yesterday's game.

discreet Hide phonetics
careful not to cause embarrassment or attract too much attention, especially by keeping something secret:
The family made discreet enquiries about his background.
They are very good assistants, very discreet - they wouldn't go shouting to the press about anything they discovered while working for you.
NOTE: Do not confuse with discrete.

discreetly Hide phonetics

discretion Hide phonetics
noun [U]
1 the ability to behave without causing embarrassment or attracting too much attention, especially by keeping information secret:
"Can you trust him with this?" "Yes, he's the soul of discretion (= he will not tell other people)."

2 FORMAL the right or ability to decide something:
Students can be expelled at the discretion of the headteacher (= if the headteacher decides it).
I leave the decision to your discretion (= to your good judgment).

discretionary Hide phonetics
adjective FORMAL
decided by officials and not fixed by rules:

diligent Hide phonetics
1 APPROVING careful and using a lot of effort:
a diligent student
Leo is very diligent in/about his work.
Their lawyer was extremely diligent in preparing their case.

2 done in a careful and detailed way:
The discovery was made after years of diligent research.

diligence Hide phonetics
noun [U]
She hoped that her diligence would be noticed at work.

diligently Hide phonetics

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